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Hypersonic Entry and Cruise Vehicles

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VKI CW 2008-01, Collection of Works on Hypersonic Entry and Cruise Vehicles, ISBN-13 978-2-930389-87-7, 2 volumes

Hypersonic Entry and Cruise Vehicles

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  • Hypersonic Entry and Cruise Vehicles
  • Hypersonic Entry and Cruise Vehicles


June 30 – July 3, 2008, held at Stanford University
ISBN-13 978-2-930389-87-7
2 volumes


In-depth knowledge of gas dynamics at hypersonic speeds is required to define the environment and requirements for the design and safe operation of space vehicles, planetary probes, and rockets. Advancements in super-computers, numerical algorithms, and modeling have enabled major progress in our approach to the design and development of vehicles, and have minimized the requirements for extensive flight tests. However, there remain many challenges in our ability to model the hypersonic regime. The constitutive equations that describe conservation of mass, momentum, and energy in the hypersonic regime require the development of physical models for high enthalpy and non-equilibrium effects. In turn, the development of these models requires reliable experimental data to guide and verify the models. The complexity of the physics in the hypersonic regime presents unique challenges for measurement techniques and flight tests.

A course on Hypersonic Entry and Cruise Vehicles was held at Stanford University on 30 June-3 July, 2008, as part of the von Karman Institute for Fluid Dynamics lecture series. The objectives of the course were to review the up-to-date physical models describing complex high-enthalpy and turbulence effects, measurement techniques for flight test and ground-based experiments, as well as numerical simulation strategies specific to the hypersonic regime. The course was tailored to provide professionals and students working and/or supporting aerospace industries, space agencies, and defense programs a snap shot of the state-of-the-art in this rapidly progressing technology. Prominent professors and scientists from seven countries representing thirteen institutions for a total of twenty-two lecturers were invited to give classes on their field of expertise. A total of eighty-nine students and professionals attended the course.

The four day course covered lectures spanning fundamental theory to flight. The first day lectures addressed theoretical issues on irreversible thermodynamics and kinetic theory. Experimental and modelling techniques for understanding radiation and catalysis effects were also covered. The second day lectures covered areas on interest to the Air Force and NASA that included results and lessons learned from air-breathing propulsion experiments, the X-43A flight experiments, and the role of experimental capabilities in hypersonic flights and planetary entry. The third day was devoted to outstanding modelling issues in boundary layer transition and turbulence, shock layer radiation, and system design. The day included a tour of the NASA Ames research centre arc-Jet facilities. The fourth day was devoted to lecturers on advanced numerical methods for hypersonic flows, new approaches to risk-based analysis and testing.

Generous support from NATO Research and Technology Organization, NASA fundamental aerodynamics program, Air Force Office for Scientific Research, and the Department of Energy PSAAP is gratefully acknowledged.

Volume I

  • GIORDANO, D. - European Space Research & Technology Center, The Netherlands
    Hypersonic-flow governing equations with electromagnetic fields
  • MAGIN, T.E.1; GRAILLE, B.2; MASSOT, M.3 - 1Stanford University, USA, 2University of Paris-Sud Orsay, France, & 3Ecole Centrale Paris, France
    Kinetic theory of plasmas
  • BOURDON, A.1; BULTEL, A.2; PANESI, M.3; MAGIN, T.4 - 1Ecole Centrale Paris - CNRS, France, 2University of Rouen, France, 3von Karman Institute for Fluid Dynamics, Belgium,  4Stanford University, USA
    Detailed and simplified kinetic mechanisms for high enthalpy air flows
  • LAUX, C. - Ecole Centrale Paris, France
    Optical diagnostics and collisional-radiative models
  • KOVALEV, V - Moscow State University after M.V. Lomonosov, Russia
    Experimental and theoretical simulation of heterogeneous catalis in aerothermochemistry
  • CUMMINGS, R.M. & BERTIN, J.J. - United States Air Force Academy, USA
    Critical hypersonic aero-thermodynamic phenomenon
  • MORGAN, R. - University of Queensland, Australia
    Flight experiments on air-breathing propulsion - HYSHOT
  • VOLAND, R.T. - Aerospace and Clean Energy Technology, USA
    X-43A hypersonic vehicle technology development
  • HOLLIS, B.R. - NASA Langley Research Center, USA
    Experimental roles, capabilities and contributions to aerothermodynamic problems of hypersonic flight and planetary entry
  • BOYD, I.D. - University of Michigan, USA
    Direct simulation Monte Carlo for atmospheric entry
    Part I: Theoretical basis and physical models

Volume II

  • BOYD, I.D. - University of Michigan, USA
    Direct simulation Monte Carlo for atmospheric entry
    Part II: Code development and application results
  • BERRY, S.A & HORVATH, T.J. - NASA Langley Research Center, USA
    Hypersonic boundary-shear layer transition
  • BOSE, D.; WRIGHT, M.J; BOGDANOFF, D.; RAICHE, G.; ALLEN, G.A. - NASA Ames Research Center, USA
    Modeling and experimental validation of CN radiation behind a strong shock wave
  • BOSE, D.1; McCorkle, E.2; THOMPSON, C.3; BOGDANOFF, D.4; PRABHU, D.K.4; ALLEN, G.A.4; GRINSTEAD, J.11NASA Ames Research Center, 2North Carolina State University, USA, 3The University of Vermont, USA, 4ELORET Corp., USA
    Analysis and model validation of shock layer radiation in air
  • PRABHU, D.K. - ELORET Corporation, USA
    System design constraints - trajectory aerothermal environments
  • CANDLER, G.V. & NOMPELIS, I. - University of Minnesota, USA
    Computational fluid dynamics for atmospheric entry
  • YEE, H.C.1; SJÖGREEN, B.2; BARONE, M.3 - 1NASA Ames Research Center, 2Lawrence Livermore Laboratories, USA, 3Sandia National Laboratories, USA
    High order numerical schemes for hypersonic flow simulations
  • WRIGHT, M.J.1; GRINSTEAD, J.H.1; BOSE, D.2 - 1NASA Ames Research Center, USA & 2ELORET Corp., USA
    A risk-based approach for aerothermal/TPS analysis and testing
  • CHAZOT, O. - von Karman Institute for Fluid Dynamics, Belgium
    Hypersonic stagnation point aerothermodynamics in Plasmatron facilities

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