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Numerical modeling and experimental investigation of fine particle coagulation and dispersion in dilute flows

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VKI PHDT 2014-13, Bart Janssens, Numerical modeling and experimental investigation of fine particle coagulation and dispersion in dilute flows, ISBN 978-2-87516-081-2, 162 pgs

Numerical modeling and experimental investigation of fine particle coagulation and dispersion in dilute flows

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Numerical modeling and experimental investigation of fine particle coagulation and dispersion in dilute flows
By Bart Janssens

PhD Thesis from the von Karman Institute / Royal Military Academy / Université de la Rochelle, July 2014, ISBN 978-2-87516-081-2, 162 pgs


Abstract

The present work deals with the development of a framework for the mod- eling of dispersed flows, including the effect of coagulation on the particle size distribution. We also explore some techniques for experimental valida- tion. Models are developed for incompressible, isothermal flow containing particles that have a small relaxation time compared to the fluid time scale. For the dispersed phase, an equilibrium Eulerian approach is used, extrap- olating the particle velocity from the fluid velocity. The size distribution is modeled using the Direct Quadrature Method of Moments. In practice, this results in solving transport equations for the weights and abscissa of a Dirac delta approximation of the size distribution. To model the effect of coagula- tion, a collision kernel that makes use of the resolved instantaneous velocity is developed. All transport equations are solved using the Finite Element Method. For the fluid, the Streamline Upwind and Pressure Stabilized Petrov-Galerkin method are used, with additional grad-div stabilization. To decrease the solution time for DNS, a segregated formulation with an explicit advection term is proposed. The particle transport equations require cross-wind diffusion in addition to the streamline upwind stabilization when large gradients occur.

All work is available in the open source Coolfluid 3 framework, using an Embedded Domain Specific Language we developed for the implementation of finite element models. The resulting code closely resembles the variational form of the equations and is generic in terms of element type and the number of spatial dimensions.

A first validation uses literature results as reference. Correctness and accuracy of the methods are verified using the Taylor-Green vortex flow. For the fluid and particle concentration, direct numerical simulation of a turbulent channel flow is performed. The particle coagulation kernel is tested using particles of different sizes falling through a Burgers vortex.

Finally, some experimental validation techniques are used on a small test chamber. Particle image velocimetry is used for the fluid motion, while the size distributions are measured using Phase Doppler Anemometry and Multiple Wavelength Light Extinction. The light extinction technique was found to produce size distributions that could provide valuable reference data for our particle model.

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